This literature review on spatial reasoning skills with a focus on female engineering students covers gender differences in spatial reasoning ability, methods for assessing student ability, interventions that have proven effective for female engineering students, and research-based recommendations for college-level engineering programs. The paper discusses successful interventions such as a three-hour workshop for low-scoring students in an introductory engineering course that effectively eliminated gender differences in spatial reasoning scores.

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Metz, S. S., Donohue, S., & Moore, C. (2012). Spatial Skills: A Focus on Gender and Engineering. In B. Bogue & E. Cady (Eds.). Apply Research to Practice (ARP) Resources. Retrieved from